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Instructions for Authors

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Journal of Audiology and Otology (JAO) (formerly known as Korean Journal of Audiology) aims to publish the most advanced findings for all aspects of the auditory and vestibular system and diseases of the ear using state-of-the-art techniques and analyses. The journal covers recent trends related to the topics of audiology, otology, and neurotology conducted by professionals, with the goal of providing better possible treatment to people of all ages, from infants to the elderly, who suffer from auditory and/or vestibular disorders and thus, improving their quality of life. This journal encourages the submission of review papers about current professional issues, research papers presenting a scientific base and clinical application, and case papers with unique reports or clinical trials. We also invite letters to the editor and papers related to the manufacture and distribution of medical devices.

This journal provides integrated views from otologists, audiologists, and other healthcare practitioners, offering readers high quality scientific and clinical information. This peer-reviewed and open access journal has been the official journal of the Korean Audiological Society since 1997 and of both the Korean Audiological Society and the Korean Otological Society since 2017. It is published in English four times a year in January, April, July, and October.

Editorial Policies

Authorship is accredited only when a substantial contribution to the published work is made by meeting all of the following criteria: organizing the conception design of the project or analysis of the manuscript data, drafting or critically revising the content of the manuscript submitted for publication, and providing final approval for the version to be published. All three criteria must be met for an individual to be listed as an author or co-author on a published paper. Any other form of contribution should be included in the “Acknowledgements” section of the manuscript.
Manuscripts that include information obtained from human or animal research must provide (in the text or an appropriate footnote) verification of the review and approval of the appropriate institutional research oversight committee for the work reported.

We define plagiarism as a situation in which a paper reproduces another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation. If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible Editor(s).

We endorse the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and expect that all investigation involving human materials are performed in accordance with these principles. For animal experiments, all of the processes involved, from the raising of animals to the actual experiment, must proceed according to the guidelines of the appropriate oversight committee. The manuscript must contain a statement declaring that the experiment had been approved by an ethics committee or had followed the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals [1996, ILAR (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources) Committee on NRC, National Academic Press pp125, www.nao.edu/readingroom/books/labrats/index.html]. If these terms are not satisfied, the “Guiding Principles Editor-in-Chief” has the right to reject a manuscript. The authors must keep all the original laboratory data used for the articles and be able to submit them at the request of the editorial committee. For other policies regarding research and publication ethics not stated in these instructions, authors can refer to ‘Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html)’ or ‘Guidelines on good publication (http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/guidelines)’.
Upon the acceptance of an article, the authors should download the “Copyright Release and Author Agreement”. The copyright transfer agreement should be completed and submitted electronically when the manuscript is submitted. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. Articles published in JAO are open-access, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Conflict of interest
Authors must disclose any financial, personal, and/or institutional relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest in the manuscript. If there is no conflict of interest, this should also be stated explicitly as none declared. All sources of funding should be stated in the “Acknowledgements” section.


The Journal of Audiology and Otology accepts four categories of publications: Original articles, Review articles, Case reports, and Letter to the Editor, focused on basic science and clinical issues.

Original articles are papers containing the results of basic and clinical investigations, which are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers.

Review articles are usually solicited by the Editor-in-Chief and describe a concise review on subjects of importance to medical researchers.

Case reports are usually solicited by the Editor-in-Chief and describe a concise review on subjects of importance to medical researchers.

Letter to the editor are selected for publications that discuss problems of general interest. Letters may be subject to review by the Editorial Board. The letters are intended to reflect the range of opinions received. The authors of the paper in question (authors of the original article) are usually given an opportunity to reply.

Reviews are usually solicited by the Editor-in-chief and describe a concise review on subjects of importance to medical researchers.

Original Articles are papers containing results of basic and clinical investigations, which are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers.

Case Reports as well as brief communications deal with issues of importance to medical researchers.


  1. 1. Format: Manuscript must be written in English using MS word or Word Perfect. It should be formatted with double linespacing for printing on one side of A4 (21×29.7 cm) sheets with a margin of at least 2.5 cm on all sides.
  2. 2. Terms: Authors are advised to use terminology recommended by the ISO-IEC, Nomina Anatomica and WHO list.
  3. 3. Units of measurement: Authors should express all measurements in “Le Systeme International d’Units” (SI units). For example, length should be expressed in meters and temperature in Celsius.
  4. 4. Abbreviations: Except for units of measurement, abbreviations are strongly discouraged. Except for units of measurement, when an abbreviation appears for the first time, it should be preceded by the words it represents.

Manuscripts containing research data generally follow the order: Title page, Abstract, Text, Acknowledgements and Declaration of Interest, References, Tables, and Figures.
Title page
Title page should include (1) title of the article, (2) full names of all authors without academic degrees, (3) institutional affiliations of each author (If multiple affiliations are listed, they should be written in the same line after matching the authors with the affiliations with superscript Arabic numerals), (4) running title (less than 50 letters) reflecting the content, (5) and full information for corresponding authors including the name, degree, institutional affiliation, address, country telephone and fax number, and e-mail address.
Abstract and Key words
An abstract of NO MORE THAN 300 words must be organized and formatted according to the following headings: Background and Objectives, Subjects (Materials) and Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Each subtitle is bolded and differentiated with a colon (:). The subtitles do not change the lines at the end of their content.
The text is to be divided into five sections with the following headings: Introduction, Subjects (Materials) and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Define abbreviations at the first mentioned text and for each table and figure. If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer’s name and address (city and state/country). The maximum manuscript length is 3,500 words in English and 10,000 words in Korean (excluding the title page and abstract). The number of total references is limited to 30 for all types of manuscripts except for Case Reports where up to 15 references may be cited. The maximum number of images is 10.


Brief background, references to the most pertinent papers are generally enough to inform the readers, and the relevant findings of others may be described. The specific questions evaluated by the authors’ particular investigation should also be included.

Subjects (Materials) and Methods

This should be organized as follows: research plan, selection of participants, methods, and lastly, statistical analysis. To maintain the anonymity of participants, the names of research facilities should not be revealed. Explanation of the experimental methods should be concise and sufficient for repetition by other qualified investigators. Procedures that have been published previously should not be described in detail. However, new or significant modifications of previously published procedures require full descriptions. The sources of special chemicals or preparations should be provided along with their location (name of company, city and state, and country). With all investigations involving human materials, the authors must present the name and place of the clinical trial ethics committee that oversaw the experiment, and provide a statement declaring that the experiment meets the standards of the Helsinki declaration of 1975. Pictures should not reveal the name or identification numbers of the patients involved. With animal investigations, the authors must also provide a statement that the animals were treated according to the guidelines of the national research committee. The methods for statistical analyses and the criteria applied for significance levels should be described. The name of the program used to compute the data must be provided as well. In Case Reports, case history or case description replace the Materials and Methods section as well as the Results section.


This part should be presented logically using text, tables and illustrations. Excessive repetition of table or figure contents should be avoided. At the end of the Results section, important observations should be emphasized or summarized.


The data should be interpreted concisely without repeating materials already presented in the Results section. Speculation is permitted, but it must be supported by the data presented and be well founded.


The conclusion must be brief and written in the context of the research purpose.


All persons who have made substantial contributions, but who are not eligible as authors are named in the acknowledgments section.


The maximum number of references that can be cited is 30 for Original Articles and 15 for Case Reports. All references (double spaced) should be listed in the order of citation in the text with corresponding numbers. For papers with six or more authors, list the first six authors then add “et al.” (List all authors up to a maximum of six). Identify references [in square brackets] in the text by providing the corresponding number. For example, “K-HINT has been developed [1, 2].” for the first two in-text citations. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the Index Medicus.

1. References to journal: names and initials of six authors, et al(.) full title of article(.) journal name( ) year(;) volume(:) first page(-)last page numbers(.)

i. When a work has six or fewer authors
Ex) Auwens LJ, Veldman JE, Bouman H, Ramaekers FCS, Huizing EH. Expression of intermediate filaments proteins in the adult human cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1991;100:211-8.

ii. When a work has seven or more authors
Ex) Reiss LA, Ito RA, Eggleston JL, Liao S, Becker JJ, Lakin CE, et al. Pitch adaptation patterns in bimodal cochlear implant users: over time and after experience. Ear Hear 2015;36:e23-34.

2. References to entire book: name and initials of all authors(.) title of the book(.) edition(.) place(:) publisher(;) year(.) (p.)first page(-)last page(.)

Ex) Park IY, Yoon JH, Lee JG, Chung IH. Surgical anatomy of the nose. 1st ed. Seoul, Korea: Academy;2001. p.90-100.

3. References to book chapter: name and initials of all authors(.) title of the chapter(.) (In: )editor of the book (, editor.) title of the book(.) edition(.) place(:) publisher(;) year(.) (p.)first page(-)last page(.)

Ex.) Bluestone CD, Klein JO. Otitis media, atelectasis, and Eustachian tube obstruction. In: Pediatric Otolaryngology (ed. Bluestone CD), 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders;1996. p.480-1.

4. References to unpublished sources: To cite unpublished material such as papers presented at conference proceedings, unpublished dissertations, any manuscripts ‘in press’ or personal communication, provide the details as follows.

i. Conference proceedings:
Ex) Virolainen A, Saxen H, Leinonen N. Antibody response to pneumolysin in children with acute otitis media. In: Lim DJ, Bluestone CD, Klein JO, Nelson JD, Ogura PL, editors. Recent advances in otitis media. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media; 1991 May 20-24: Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Hamilton: Decker Periodicals; 1993. p.205-6.
ii. Dissertation: name and initials of all authors(.) title of article[type of degree](.) place(:) academy(;) year(.)
Ex) Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the elderly’s access and utilization [dissertation]. St. Louis(MO): Washington Univ.;1995.
iii. References to In press: name and initials of all authors(.) title of article(.) journal name( ) In press year(.)
Ex) Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Eng J Med In press 1996.

5. References to electronic material

i. Journal article in electronic format
Ex) Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases, Emerg Infect Dis [serial online]1995 jan-mar [cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1):[24 screens]. Available from: URL:http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm.
ii. Monograph in electronic format
Ex) CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated (monograph on CD-ROM). Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers. 2nd version 2.0. San Diego: CMEA;1995.


Tables must be cited in the order in which they appear in the text using Arabic numerals and the word processing program should be used to create the tables. Do not use Excel or comparable spreadsheet programs. Provide the tables together with the manuscript in a DOC file. Cite tables consecutively in the text, and number them in that order. Place each on a separate sheet, and include the table title, appropriate column headings, and explanatory legends (including definitions of any abbreviations used). Do not embed tables within the body of the manuscript. For footnotes, use the following symbols in sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, and ‡‡. All units of measurement and concentration should be designated. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge them fully. Stating the names of participants should be avoided and names should be replaced with Arabic numerals.


Images can be in black-and-white or in color, depending on the author’s preference. However, the images must have adequate resolution for printed materials, and if not, the committee may ask the author to provide more suitable pictures. If a black-and-white picture does not provide sufficient information, the editorial committee has the right to request a colored picture and the authors must make the necessary corrections. If several pictures are designated with a single Arabic numeral, each picture must be differentiated with alphabets (ex: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B, and Fig. 1C). If an author decides to submit a facial picture, the eyes must be covered, and the individual’s information must be omitted to make identification impossible.

Size of image files

The sizes and resolutions of files have a direct relationship with the quality of printed materials. Therefore, following the editorial guidelines is strongly advised. Especially, careful attention is necessary to ensure that image sizes are not too small. Pixels from Photoshop can be used to estimate the actual image size. Digital art needs to be submitted as TIFF, EPS, or PPT files during the review process. However, TIF files must be submitted once the publication has been approved. Color images must be submitted as CMYK files, but half tone pictures (CT or MRI) must be converted to grayscale mode. Electronic photographs (radiographs, CT/MRI scans, and scanned images) must have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Line art must have a resolution of at least 800 dpi.

Figure Legend

Legends must be submitted for all figures. Figure legends should appear within the document in a separate section after the tables. Figures must be cited in the order they appear in the text using Arabic numerals. Figure titles should be in the form of paragraphs or phrases with a capital letter at the beginning. Articles, such as ‘the’ and ‘a’ should not be present. If detailed explanation is necessary, the explanation must be in complete sentences so that readers can understand the meaning without looking through the original paper. Microscopic pictures should contain a scale bar within the picture or the magnifying power used for the microscope should be stated.

Please note that all images or drawings submitted will not be returned.

Case report
Submissions should have up to five A4 pages and include an introduction and discussion. The maximum length for abstracts is 150 words, 15 references, and a total of four authors.

※ Other requirements are in accordance with the international Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, October 2008.


1. Copyright
Copyright to all the published material is owned by the Korean Audiological Society and Korean Otological Society. The authors should agree to the copyright transfer during the submission process. The corresponding author has a responsibility of submitting the copyright transfer agreement to the Publisher.
2. Open Access Policy
P&FM is an open access journal. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. To use the tables or figures of P&FM in other periodicals, books or media for scholarly and educational purposes, the process of permission request to the publisher of P&FM is not necessary.
3. Deposit Policy According to Sherpa/Romeo (http://www.sherpa.ac.uk)
Author cannot archive pre-print (i.e., pre-refereeing). Author can archive post-print (i.e., final draft post-refereeing). Author can archive publisher's version/PDF.


To submit to the Journal of Audiology and Otology, manuscripts should be submitted electronically through http://submit.ejao.org.

Application is accepted all through the year, and submitted manuscripts are reviewed by experts in the related field. Peer reviewers carefully evaluate the manuscript and check the validity of the research methodology and procedures. If the manuscript is appropriate, acceptance or revision is suggested. If the submitted manuscript lacks scholarly validity and rigor, the manuscript is rejected. The publication fee for the Journal of Audiology and Otology is based on the number of pages in the submitted article. Payment must be received in full before publication. Any errors discovered after publication is the responsibility of the authors. Once a manuscript is accepted for publication by the journal, the Korean Audiological Society provides the corresponding author with gallery proofs to review and make corrections. Authors must respond to the page proofs as soon as possible after making necessary corrections. If a response is not received by the designated date, the editorial committee may delay or even reject the article. To avoid such events, the editorial committee office urges our contributors to proofread the manuscripts carefully.

Peer Review Process

Journal of Audiology and Otology (JAO) reviews all manuscripts received. A manuscript is first reviewed for its format and adherence to the aims and scope of the journal. If the manuscript meets these two criteria, it is dispatched to three investigators in the field with relevant knowledge. Assuming the manuscript is sent to reviewers, JAO waits to receive opinions from at least two reviewers. In addition, if deemed necessary, a review of statistics may be requested. The authors’ names and affiliations are removed during peer review. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its scientific significance. Acceptance of the manuscript is decided based on the critiques and recommended decision of the reviewers. An initial decision will normally be made within 4 weeks of receipt of a manuscript, and the reviewers’ comments are sent to the corresponding author by e-mail. The corresponding author must indicate the alterations that have been made in response to the reviewers’ comments item by item. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 4 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. A final decision on acceptance/rejection for publication is forwarded to the corresponding author from the editor.


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Editorial Office
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital
#505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06591, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2258-6213    Fax: +82-2-595-1354    E-mail: khpent@catholic.ac.kr                

Copyright © 2018 by The Korean Audiological Society and Korean Otological Society. All rights reserved.

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